Strategic Planning and Management
Allison, Michael & Kaye, Jude. "Why Plan?" Strategic Planning for
Nonprofit Organizations, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
Planning FAQ #1.
In this article, the authors discuss the importance of strategic planning.
Not only do they discuss the importance of having the plan but also the specific
way to obtaining that plan. The authors describe a successful process as one
that supports the organization involving all members from stakeholders to
volunteers, and even the community. There should be a consensus reached about
the end results they are being attempted (goals and objectives) and the way to
go about accomplishing those results (internal vision, programs, etc). The
planning process they present is called the "ends" and "means" plan. The
following chart is how they explain this:
|Programs and Internal
The article suggests that when implementing, your plan should be "tight on
ends and loose on means!"
Canales, James E.; Kibble, Barbara D.; Terk, Natasha. "One Step Beyond
Strategic Planning." Foundation News & Commentary, Vol.41 Issue 5
This article explains that restructuring is going beyond the steps of
strategic planning. Restructuring involves expanding by merging, or new
partnerships including joint ventures, or a consolidation of two or more
organizations. The article discusses lessons and observations of restructuring.
More and more nonprofits are choosing to restructure so they can maximize
resources and minimize needs and liabilities while working toward a similar
goal. Strategy is extremely important for all organizations and restructuring is
another strategic tool to help nonprofits build a stronger organization. It can
be difficult and expensive at first but will save money in the long run. The
three authors personally help to fund various strategic restructured
organizations. Since this is becoming more popular, organizations are also
developing to assist in restructuring so that the high initial costs don't
prevent possible beneficial mergers. However, the strongest asset of strategic
restructuring is that more people are concentrating together to work toward the
mission of the organization.
Carrigan, Linda. "Braking for Growth." (2000)
This article discusses the importance of planning and organizational systems.
Linda Carrigan goes through three steps she feels are important in putting
together an effective strategic plan. They are: 1) The Process is as Important
As the Product. This step deals with including stakeholders in the process in a
meaningful way, involving all parties in the decision making process, keeping it
simple as to not inhibit creativity, the using consultants, and picking a
process and implementing it well. 2) Let Data Drive the Process. This is a very
important step. Keep your emotions out of it as to not stall the process. Data
keeps it at an "objective level." Some of collection activities Carrigan
considers important in creating a strategic plan include; market analysis,
competitor analysis, and environmental scan. 3) Keep the Plan Off the Shelf.
Carrigan discusses how many plans look great when presented but never achieve
results because they are not used. Implement the plan, pick a few projects you
know you can achieve and push for those first. It is important to celebrate
progress with the staff when obtaining those goals. This keeps the momentum
Collett, Stacey. "SWOT Analysis." Computerworld, Vol.33 Issue 29,
A SWOT analysis is an in-depth internal look at the strengths,
weaknesses of the organization, and externally at the
opportunities and threats that may arise. The author concentrates
on how important the analysis of a company or organization's strategy is to
success. The focus of this article is the for-profit sector, however these
aspects should also be carried over to the nonprofits so that they can analyze
their position in the service market or society in relation to other
organizations. SWOT analysis will also help to increase the effectiveness of
management. The purpose of the analysis is to have a clear understanding before
one takes action. The article breaks down the four-part approach to analyzing
and developing strategy and lists several questions to use as guidelines for a
better understanding of each of the four areas of the SWOT analysis.
Hay, Robert D. Strategic management in non-profit organizations,
Westport: Greenwood Press, 1990.
Distinguishing mission, objectives and goals can be the hardest part of
starting a new organization. These words can be used to describe the same thing.
When building an organization's vision, the above terms need to be broken down
into three different dimensions. The breakdown should be done so the mission can
result the executive's perception of the service. Then an evaluation needs to be
done to analyze what tasks will be needed to build the vision. This creates the
fundamental duties that the organization sets out to accomplish.
Hutton, Stan. "Get Good Advice Before Launching Your
October 12, 2000.
This is a very interesting article about having knowledge and a plan before
you begin a nonprofit organization. The article centers on world famous baseball
player Sammy Sosa. It describes how Sammy Sosa donated a 2.7 million dollar
building to his hometown in the Dominican Republic to start the Sosa Foundation.
It also describes how money from the foundation was used to pay for things like
the moving of Sosa's yacht from Florida to the Dominican Republic, and how rent
was not collected from tenants of the building whom mostly were Sosa's
relatives. All in all the financial accountability was nonexistent. This was not
because the foundation is a bad thing. The article describes many things the
foundation does to help the community. It was just a matter of poor planning
when the organization was set up. There was a lack of knowledge about keeping
the personal accounts separate from the foundation accounts. It does also
mention that Sosa isn't in trouble.
Polyack, Jolene. "Nonprofit Organizations Need Marketing Strategies To Meet
Goals." Business Journal Serving Fresno & the Central San Joaquin
Valley, Issue 322490, Aug.2, 1999.
This article provides marketing strategies for nonprofit organizations. Four
strategies were discussed. They are differentiation, competition, research, and
promotion. The first strategy, differentiation, is simply setting one
organization apart from other similar organizations. The second strategy was to
consider other nonprofits as competition and study what has and has not been
successful for them. Next was the importance of researching target markets so
that an organization can communicate more effectively to people who may actually
care what it has to say. An organization should also treat its existing givers
or donors like a business would treat its customers by creating value for
them. Finally, the strategy of promotion is used when a nonprofit reaches
potential givers either by telemarketing, direct mail, event marketing or
advertising. It is important to weigh the results of each approach to see if the
method used is the best way to promote the service. The author mentions that
nonprofits should always communicate to the media and get them involved to
create exposure. Jolene Polyack also says, "Marketing strategy can become the
catalyst for achieving a nonprofit organization's goals. It will insure that
your organization is receiving its fair share of the time and money
Ramanathon, Kavasserei V. and Hegstad, Larry P. Readings in Management
Control in Nonprofit Organizations, New York: John Wiley and Son's Inc.,
Kavasserei and Hegstad team together to edit this book on management control.
They begin with an introduction to the nonprofit sector and continue with
financial and management control. They then choose articles are useful when
attempting to understand the design of management control for the unique
characteristics of nonprofits. The readings include the subject of the control
of expenditures for cost effectiveness. Designing the control structure is also
covered. The work also covers the process of planning, programming, and
budgeting. The editors conclude with readings on reporting and the evaluation of
Stone, Melissa, Bigelow, Barbara, & Crittenden, William. "Research on
Strategic Management in Non-Profit Organizations." Administration and
This article presents an analysis of what is known and not known about
strategic management activities in the world of non-profit organizations. The
authors found, through analysis of previous research, that many non-profits do
not conduct strategic planning. Those that do prepare a strategic plan, prepare
it because it is a funding requirement. Contrary to popular belief, having board
members with a business background does not influence whether or not an
organization does strategic planning, while having a leader with business
experience does. Leadership and planning can be linked to performance,
especially when turbulent environmental conditions arise.