Leadership and Management
Gray has written an important series of articles addressing leadership
issues regarding Ethics and Accountability.
Anon. "Leadership Characteristics: Embracing
Leadership Characteristics That Count." Association Management 52, No.1. American Society of Association
Executives, January 2000.
This article emphasizes the need to change leadership patterns in nonprofit
organizations in order to effectively lead an organization into the future.
author quotes Bernard Ross in proposing that nonprofits "throw away the
stationary (the old way) and concentrate on five characteristics that lead to
successful nonprofit organizations." The article explains the five
characteristics and gives a key question on each to get ideas flowing. The
five characteristics are as follows: 1) use foresight more than hindsight,
practice management by walking outside rather than management by walking around,
3) practice focusing and avoid generalization, 4) value horshin over kaizen
philosophy of ongoing improvement), and 5) be resilient and let go of
Finigan, Kathleen. "Be an Effective Manager; Develop Leadership
Qualities." Small Business Insights, Albany: July 5, 1999.
Finigan defines leadership in an organization as the ability to influence the
actions and behavior of others so that organizational goals will be achieved.
She goes on to describe the qualities of a leader and explains that leaders are
not born they are made. This article emphasizes the need for leaders to work
with change and to make fundamental changes in their own attitudes and
approaches in order to effectively lead employees. The leader of today must be a
facilitator, not an order giver. Leaders must be sensitive to the needs of
employees and volunteers because satisfying needs motivate people. A good
manager is aware of the reciprocal nature of the manager-subordinate
relationship and understands that cooperation by both is a must. Finigan
finishes the article by stating success as a manager and a leader can be equated
with the amount of personal power you have acquired and continue to
Nanus, Burt and Dobbs Stephen M. "Leaders who make a
difference." Essential Strategies for Meeting the Nonprofit Challenge, San Francisco:
Nanus and Dobbs' book is about leading and becoming a leader. It focuses on
building organizations and strengthening relationships in nonprofits. They write
about how leadership is a challenge in nonprofit organizations and how leaders
work for the greater good and what it takes to get started as a leader. They
then focus on leaders as visionaries, strategists and agents of change. They
identify various roles of leaders such as coaches, politicians and campaigners
who maintain finances. They also focus on how leaders make a difference and are
held accountable for their actions.
Petrick, Joseph & Scherer, Robert. "Competing Social
Responsibility Values and the Functional Roles of Managers." Journal of Managerial
Psychology 8, No3. MCB University Press, 1993.
Petrick and Scherer conducted a study on the functional roles of managers in
order to determine whether certain kinds of managers possessed a greater sense
of social responsibility. One hundred and eleven managers completed The
Social Responsibility Survey. Four F-Tests revealed statistically
significant differences between different types of managers. Managers with an
accounting/finance background showed the least evidence of social responsibility
values while general managers had the highest levels of social responsibility
values. The results are significant for recruitment and training of managers in
a non-profit organizational setting.
Radbourne, Jennifer. "Recruitment and Training of Board
Members for the Nineties and Beyond." Journal of Arts Management, 1993.
Radbourne examines boards of directors in order to discover what motivates
certain people to become board members and how their qualifications affect the
organization. Through research on several arts organizations in Australia, she
has discovered that most board members have similar characteristics. Most board
members are college-educated males between the ages of forty-five and sixty. The
typical board member is recruited through invitation by the chairman of the
board and receives no formal training for his appointment. He believes that his
general responsibilities include advice and guidance, to oversee finances and
business operations, to attend meetings, set policy, and make decisions. The
strengths he has include business experience and experience in the arts.
Radbourne has suggestions for board improvements. Suggestions include: limiting
board service to a maximum of six years, requiring attendance of at least sixty
percent of meetings, demonstrating fundamental business talents, and serving on
volunteer basis. Radbourne also concludes that boards should reflect the
community's cultural diversity.
Slavin, Simon. An Introduction to Human Services
Management, New York: Haworth Press, 1985.
Simon Slavin serves as the editor for many different authors in creating this
book. He begins with an introduction to nonprofit and human service
organizations. He continues with theory, structure and the use of authority by
executives. He also covers organizational conflict and change, which will lead
to trends in human services management.
Tucci, Linda. "Goldbaum, Michael Aid Nonprofits
in Leadership." St. Louis Business Journal, St. Louis: October 4, 1999.
Tucci explains how Richard Goldbaum and Margaret Michael help in the
transition of hiring a new executive director. The focus of the article is on
the importance of not hiring a new executive too soon. It emphasizes the need to
take the time and hire the right person for the job. This is a very critical
time for nonprofits and things can easily fall apart. It is explained that when
an executive director leaves, the organization is probably facing long-range
problems. These need to be addressed before a new director is hired. Some might
think that using a staff member as an interim director would be an appropriate
solution. This could cause problems because the staff member may not be happy
going back to his or her old position once a new executive director is hired. A
more workable solution is engaging the assistance of consultants like Goldbaum
and Michael who provide temporary interim executives that step in and help
organizations get through, until an appropriate new director has been